Gum disease is often caused by a build up of plaque bacteria, the best way to remove this is by twice daily tooth brushing. But no matter how well you clean your teeth there will always be hard to reach areas that are tricky to keep clean. In these areas, plaque bacteria can accumulate and may eventually mineralise to form a tough, crusty deposit called calculus or tartar, which is impossible to remove by brushing alone. If not removed, more plaque can build up around the tooth and potentially under the gum line, leading to the progression of gum disease.
To reduce the risk of gum disease or to help stop it from becoming more serious, your dentist may recommend that you have a professional clean, called a scale and polish, to get your teeth properly clean.